Bitcoin Wealth Alliance

How Do Bitcoin Transactions Work?

Bitcoin Wealth Alliance
Bitcoin purchases are sent from and to digital bitcoin wallets, as well as are electronically authorized for security. Every person on the network knows about a purchase, and also the record of a deal could be traced back to the factor where the bitcoins were generated.

Holding onto bitcoins is great if you’re a speculator waiting for the price to climb, however the whole point of this money is to invest it. When spending bitcoins, how do deals function?

There Are No Bitcoins, Only Records of Bitcoin Deals

Below’s the hilarious thing about bitcoins: they don’t exist anywhere, even on a hard disk drive. We discuss a person having bitcoins, but when you take a look at a specific bitcoin address, there are no digital bitcoins held in it, in the same way that you might hold pounds or dollars in a financial account. You can not point to a bodily things, and even an electronic data, and state “this is a bitcoin”.

Instead, there are just documents of deals between various addresses, when it comes to balances that improve as well as lower. Every purchase that ever before happened is stored in an extensive general ledger called the block chain. If you want to exercise the balance of any type of bitcoin address, the details isn’t really held at that address; you must rebuild it by looking at the block chain.

What Does a Purchase Appear like?

If Alice sends some bitcoins to Bob, that deal will certainly have 3 pieces of information:
An input. This is a document of which bitcoin address was used to send the bitcoins to Alice to begin with (she received them from her buddy, Eve).
A quantity. This is the quantity of bitcoins that Alice is sending to Bob.
A result. This is Bob’s bitcoin address.

Exactly how is it Sent?

To send bitcoins, you need 2 factors: a bitcoin address, and also a private trick. A bitcoin address isn’t like a savings account; you don’t need mountains of documents and also ID to establish one up. In fact, they are created arbitrarily, and are merely sequences of letters and also numbers. The exclusive key is an additional series of letters and also numbers, but unlike your bitcoin address, this is concealed.

Think of your bitcoin address as a secure deposit box when it comes to a glass front. Everybody recognizes exactly what is in it, however simply the exclusive key can open it to take points out or put points in.

When Alice wishes to send out bitcoins to Bob, she uses her private secret to sign a message with the input, amount, as well as outcome (Bob’s address).

She then sends it from her bitcoin wallet out to the wider bitcoin network. From there, bitcoin miners verify the deal, putting it right into a purchase block as well as eventually addressing it.

Why Must I In some cases Await My Deal to Clear?

Because your purchase needs to be verified by miners, you are in some cases compelled to hang around up until they have completed mining. The bitcoin process is set to make sure that each block takes roughly 10 minutes to mine. Some business could make you wait till this block has actually been validated, indicating that you could make a cup of coffee and also come back once again in a while prior to you could download the electronic items or take advantage of the solution that you paid for.

On the other hand, some business will not make you wait until the deal has actually been confirmed. They efficiently take a chance on you, presuming that you won’t try and spend the very same bitcoins elsewhere prior to the deal confirms. This often happens for reduced worth purchases, where the threat of scams isn’t really as wonderful.

What If the Input as well as Outcome Quantities Do not Match?

Due to the fact that bitcoins exist just as documents of deals, you could end up when it comes to lots of different deals linked to a particular bitcoin address. Perhaps Jane sent Alice two bitcoins, Philip sent her three bitcoins, and Eve sent her a single bitcoin, all as different purchases at different times. These are not immediately integrated in Alice’s budget to make one data consisting of six bitcoins. They simply sit there as various purchase records.

When Alice wants to send out bitcoins to Bob, her pocketbook will certainly try to use deal documents when it comes to various quantities that amount to the variety of bitcoins that she wants to send Bob.

The chances are that when Alice wants to send bitcoins to Bob, she will not have exactly the ideal variety of bitcoins from various other purchase. Perhaps she only wants to send 1.5 bitcoins to Bob. None of the transactions that she has in her bitcoin address are for that quantity, and also none of them add up to that quantity when incorporated. Alice can’t merely divide a deal into smaller quantities. You can just invest the whole result of a deal, rather than cracking it up right into smaller amounts.

Instead, she will have to send one of the incoming deals, and after that the rest of the bitcoins will be gone back to her as adjustment.

Alice sends out both bitcoins that she received from Jane to Bob. Jane is the input, and Bob is the output. Yet the quantity is simply 1.5 bitcoins, since that is all she wants to send. So, her wallet instantly creates two outcomes for her deal: 1.5 bitcoins to Bob, and also 0.5 bitcoins to a brand-new address, which it developed for Alice to hold her modification from Bob.

Are There Any sort of Purchase Charges?

Often, however not at all times. Purchase fees are computed utilizing numerous factors. Some pocketbooks permit you set deal costs manually. Any kind of portion of a transaction that isn’t picked up by the recipient or returned as modification is taken into consideration a charge. This then visits the miner blessed enough to resolve the purchase block as an extra reward.

Today, several miners procedure transactions for no costs. As the block benefit for bitcoins lessens, this will be less likely.

One of the frustrating things about deal costs in the past is that the computation of those fees has been intricate and also arcane. It has been the result of many updates to the process, as well as has developed naturally. Updates to the core software application dealing with bitcoin transactions will see it alter the way that it manages deal charges, as an alternative approximating the most affordable fee that will be accepted.

Can I Get an Invoice?

Bitcoin wasn’t really meant for invoices. Although there are modifications coming in model 0.9 that will alter the means repayments work, making them much more user-friendly and also fully grown. Repayment cpus like BitPay likewise give the advanced attributes that you wouldn’t normally obtain with a native bitcoin deal, such as receipts and also order confirmation websites.
Suppose I Just Would like to Send Component of a Bitcoin?

Bitcoin purchases are divisible. A satoshi is one millionth of a bitcoin, as well as it is feasible to send a transaction as tiny as 5430 satoshis on the bitcoin network.

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So, How Does Mining Happen?

In traditional fiat money systems, governments simply print more money when they need to. But in bitcoin, money isn’t printed at all – it is discovered. Computers around the world “mine” for coins by competing with each other.

So, How Does Mining Happen?

People are sending bitcoins to each other over the bitcoin network all the time, but unless someone keeps a record of all these transactions, no-one would be able to keep track of who had paid what. The bitcoin network deals with this by collecting all of the transactions made during a set period into a list, called a block. It’s the miners’ job to confirm those transactions, and write them into a general ledger.

Making a Hash of it

This general ledger is a long list of blocks, known as the block chain. It can be used to explore any transaction made between any bitcoin addresses, at any point on the network. Whenever a new block of transactions is created, it is added to the block chain, creating an increasingly lengthy list of all the transactions that ever took place on the bitcoin network. A constantly updated copy of the block is given to everyone who participates, so that they know what is going on.

But a general ledger has to be trusted, and all of this is held digitally. How can we be sure that the block chain stays intact, and is never tampered with? This is where the miners come in.

When a block of transactions is created, miners put it through a process. They take the information in the block, and apply a mathematical formula to it, turning it into something else. That something else is a far shorter, seemingly random sequence of letters and numbers known as a hash. This hash is stored along with the block, at the end of the block chain.

Hashes have some interesting properties. It’s easy to produce a hash from a collection of data like a bitcoin block, but it’s practically impossible to work out what the data was just by looking at the hash. And while it is very easy to produce a hash from a large amount of data, each hash is unique. If you change just one character in a bitcoin block, its hash will change completely.

Miners don’t just use the transactions in a block to generate a hash. Some other pieces of data are used too. One of these pieces of data is the hash of the last block stored in the block chain.

Because each block’s hash is produced using the hash of the block before it, it becomes a digital version of a wax seal. It confirms that this block – and every block after it – is legitimate, because if you tampered with it, everyone would know.

If you tried to fake a transaction by changing a block that had already been stored in the block chain, this would change that block’s hash. If someone checked the block’s authenticity by running the hashing function on it, they’d find that the hash was different from the one already stored along with that block in the block chain. The block would be fake!

Because each block’s hash is used to help produce the hash of the next block in the chain, tampering with a block would also change the next block’s hash. So tampering with a block would make the subsequent block’s hash wrong, too. That would continue all the way down the chain, throwing everything out of whack.

Competing for Coins

So, that’s how miners ‘seal off’ a block. They all compete with each other to do this, using software written specifically to mine blocks. Every time someone successfully creates a hash, they get a reward of 25 bitcoins, the block chain is updated, and everyone on the network hears about it. That’s the incentive to keep mining, and keep the transactions working.

The problem is that it’s very easy to produce a hash from a collection of data. Computers are really good at this. The bitcoin network has to make it more difficult, otherwise everyone would be hashing hundreds of transaction blocks each second, and all of the bitcoins would be mined in minutes. The Bitcoin protocol deliberately makes it more difficult, by introducing something called a ‘proof of work’.

The Bitcoin protocol won’t just accept any old hash. It demands that a block’s hash has to look a certain way; it must have a certain number of zeroes at the start. There’s no way of telling what a hash is going to look like before you produce it, and as soon as you include a new piece of data in the mix, the hash will be totally different.

Miners aren’t supposed to meddle with the transaction data in a block, but they must change the data they’re using to create a different hash. They do this using another, random piece of data called a nonce. This is used with the transaction data to create a hash. If the hash doesn’t fit the required format, the nonce is changed, and the whole thing is hashed again. It can take many attempts to find a nonce that works, and all the miners in the network are trying to do it at the same time. That’s how miners earn their bitcoins.

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In typical fiat money systems, governments merely publish even more money when they need to.

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In bitcoin, money isn’t really printed at all– it is found. Computer systems around the globe “mine” for coins by competing with each various other.

So, Exactly how Does Mining Happen?

Folks are sending out bitcoins to each other over the bitcoin network all the time, but unless a person keeps a document of all these transactions, no-one would certainly manage to monitor which had paid what. The bitcoin network take care of this by gathering every one of the transactions made throughout a set period right into a list, called a block. It’s the miners’ task to confirm those purchases, and compose them right into a basic journal.

Making a Hash of it

This basic journal is a long listing of blocks, called the block chain. It could be utilized to explore any sort of transaction made in between any bitcoin addresses, at any sort of point on the network. Whenever a brand-new block of transactions is developed, it is included in the block chain, creating an increasingly lengthy listing of all the transactions that ever before happened on the bitcoin network. A constantly upgraded copy of the block is provided every person who takes part, so that they understand what is taking place.

But a basic ledger needs to be relied on, and all of this is held digitally. Exactly how can we be sure that the block chain remains in one piece, and is never ever damaged? This is where the miners come in.

When a block of transactions is produced, miners put it via a process. They take the info in the block, as well as use a mathematical formula to it, transforming it right into something else. That another thing is a much shorter, seemingly arbitrary sequence of letters and also numbers known as a hash. This hash is stored along with the block, at the end of the block chain.

Hashes have some interesting properties. It’s very easy to create a hash from a collection of data like a bitcoin block, however it’s virtually difficult to work out exactly what the information was merely by considering the hash. As well as while it is extremely easy to make a hash from a huge quantity of information, each hash is special. If you transform simply one character in a bitcoin block, its hash will certainly alter completely.

Miners don’t simply utilize the deals in a block to produce a hash. Other pieces of information are made use of as well. One of these items of information is the hash of the last block saved in the block chain.

Due to the fact that each block’s hash is generated making use of the hash of the block prior to it, it comes to be a digital variation of a wax seal. It validates that this block– and every block after it– is legitimate, due to the fact that if you damaged it, everybody would certainly understand.

If you attempted to artificial a purchase by changing a block that had actually already been saved in the block chain, this would certainly alter that block’s hash. If a person examined the block’s authenticity by running the hashing function on it, they ‘d find that the hash was various from the one currently saved in addition to that block in the block chain. The block would certainly be artificial!

Considering that each block’s hash is used that can help make the hash of the next block in the chain, tampering with a block would certainly likewise transform the next block’s hash. So damaging a block would certainly make the subsequent block’s hash incorrect, too. That would certainly proceed all the way down the chain, throwing everything out of whack.

Competing for Coins

So, that’s how miners ‘seal off’ a block. They all compete with each other to do this, utilizing software created especially to mine blocks. Every single time an individual efficiently produces a hash, they acquire a reward of 25 bitcoins, the block chain is upgraded, and also every person on the network reads about it. That’s the motivation to keep mining, and keep the purchases working.

The trouble is that it’s very simple to generate a hash from a collection of data. Computers are actually proficient at this. The bitcoin network needs to make it more difficult, or else everyone would be hashing hundreds of transaction blocks each second, and all of the bitcoins would be mined in minutes. The Bitcoin process purposely makes it more difficult, by presenting something called a ‘proof of job’.

The Bitcoin process won’t just approve any kind of old hash. It requests that a block’s hash needs to look a specific method; it needs to have a specific variety of zeroes at the beginning. There’s no chance of telling what a hash is going to resemble prior to you create it, and also when you include a brand-new piece of information in the mix, the hash will certainly be entirely various.
Miners aren’t meant to meddle with the purchase data in a block, yet they have to change the data they’re utilizing to develop a different hash. They do this making use of one more, random item of data called a nonce. This is made use of with the purchase data to produce a hash. If the hash doesn’t match the required style, the nonce is changed, and the whole factor is hashed once more. It can take lots of attempts to discover a nonce that works, and also all the miners in the network are trying to do it at the same time. That’s just how miners make their bitcoins.

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Tesla Motors Inc

Tesla Motors Inc (TSLA) Faces A Growing List Of Rivals


The electric vehicle segment was tiny for decades, but now some of the biggest names in the auto industry are planning to expand into EVs to challenge Tesla

Tesla Motors Inc (NASDAQ:TSLA) will see several global heavyweight automobile companies competing directly with the company in the coming years. Juggernauts such as Audi, BMW, Mercedes, Porsche and Range Rover have already made clear their interest in entering the all-electric vehicle segment.

Tesla Motors TSLA Netflix

Rivals preparing all-electric vehicles

Currently, these brands are offering plug-in hybrid models while only BMW offers a battery-powered electric vehicle. Mercedes, also, sells a B-Class Electric Drive, but the availability is limited as of now.

Tesla Motors Inc (NASDAQ:TSLA) has already updated its Model S brand, which will receive competition from luxury automakers that are planning to offer all-electric sedans before the end of the decade. Recently, Germany’s Manager Magazine citing industry sources revealed that the upcoming Porsche sedan will include an all-electric version.

The Tesla Model X will receivecompetition from the Audi’s Q8 e-tron, which will be an all-electric version of the car, essentially four-door coupe utility vehicle. BMW, on the other hand, is working on a larger vehicle based on the concept of the i3 architecture. Mercedes-Benz is also analyzing the feasibility of an electric version of its S-class large luxury sedan. Every automaker except BMW plans to use steel construction, making the car heavier than Tesla Model S. According to the article in Manager, the all-electric Pajun will be lighter than Model S.

Increasing competition for Tesla

The new Pajun from Porsche could be a serious competitor to Tesla Model S as long as its performance to matches or exceeds that of the Tesla Model S.

Another car maker that may challenge Tesla Motors Inc (NASDAQ:TSLA) soon is Ford. Ford CEO Mark Fields, in a recent interview with USA Today, said that the company has the capability to build an all-electric car to compete with Tesla. Fields told that its engineers got a Model S and has experimented with it.

Tesla Motors Inc (NASDAQ:TSLA) has been working on the electric models for several years, and has developed a very successful business model. The Model S is a gorgeous, all aluminum vehicle from a car maker who was unknown 10 years ago, and  it offers a fast, comfortable, technologically advanced driving experience.

Tesla Motors Inc 


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QEYesterday, following the eagerly anticipated Fed Policy Statement in which it acknowledged the termination of Quantitative easing (QE), the Bitcoin price took a downward path along with Gold. We consider the outlook for the global economy in the weeks ahead as well as the implications for the Bitcoin price.

Start of the Post-Fed QE Era
Global Economy
Bitcoin Price Correlation with Gold

Start of the Post-Fed QE Era

The Fed being the world’s most powerful central bank – a veritable “center” of all central banks – their decisions and policy lead cascades to all other economies across the globe.

The immediate effect of yesterday’s announcement of the termination of quantitative easing (QE) is that the US equities and bond markets will begin a necessary decline. The inevitability of this outcome is guaranteed by the stated aim of the Fed to spent the money it prints ($85 billion a month at the peak of QE) on two distinct targets: US Treasury bonds and equities (stocks), via agreements with banks to prefer loans destined for equity and mutual fund investment.

Another effect of stopping QE (liberal dollar printing) is that now the Dollar will reflate as can be witnessed across forex charts today. Consider that the Fed does not want a strong Dollar precisely because it will undermine their efforts at increasing the rate of US inflation. So, although the Fed has pledged to increase interest rates, they’re caught in a trap: as soon as they start increasing rates, the Dollar will immediately strengthen as investors move their wealth into USD – perceived as strong and yielding higher interest than other currencies in country economies with lower interest rates.

The core problem is that the Fed applied QE, combined with near-zero interest rates, in an effort to artificially kickstart a new Keynesian business cycle. However,the behemoth QE experiment failed miserably. Had it succeeded, we’d see:

  • increasing employment in the US,
  • rising inflation,
  • greater productivity,
  • greater manufacturing output and
  • increases in quarterly GDP.

Yet, all of these measures are declining instead of increasing. So, a cursory tally of this spectacular central bank foible shows the following results:

  1. massive debt ($1.66 trillion over five years of QE),
  2. a weakened US Dollar,
  3. household saving was made impossible (by imposing a blanket near-zero percent interest),
  4. burdening of future generations of taxpayers (who must pay off the debt)
  5. stifled consumer spending power (as a result of the weakened US Dollar)
  6. damaged retail sector (as a result of low consumption in point 5 above – low spending power and no savings, right?)
  7. equities and bond market bubbles which threaten collapse in the absence of QE-smack.

Most central banks hold USD and US Treasury bonds as foreign reserves and securities. A strengthening Dollar is to their benefit, but a weakening bond market is not, so they will seek to sell those bonds and thereby contribute to a vulnerable bond market on the edge of a confidence cliff. This is neither arcane knowledge nor is it an extrapolation of how the bond market operates. Historic economic patterns and trade-winds as well as reliable market ebb-and-flow is gone. The outcome is one that is well-understood by the Fed and, therefore, a willing risk (or sacrifice) they engaged at the behest of the wealthiest 10%.

Here is a chart showing the percentage of US income that falls to the wealthiest 10% of citizens in various countries since WW2. The US is graphed in maroon.

income distribution oct 2014

The outlook is bad for ordinary working people in the US and the global economy in general. On the “positive” side, wealthy people in the US are even more wealthy after the conclusion of the QE program!

From the Economist:

…the top 10% of households own about 91.4% of outstanding stocks and mutual funds, up from 84.5% in 2001. The richest 1% own almost half of all stock and mutual funds. No surprise then that the recent jump in consumer sentiment recorded by the University of Michigan was led by the better-off; upper income households (the top third) had a 15 point increase in sentiment, the bottom two-thirds rose just five points. No surprise, either, that since the start of the crisis, inequality (as measured by the Gini coefficient) has risen, not fallen.

Given that this wealth effect is obvious and well understood by the Fed, we can call out a hypocrite when they reveal themselves:

From the Wall Street Journal:

The extent and continuing increase in inequality in the United States greatly concern me.
– Janet Yellen, Chairperson of the Federal Reserve

As the house of cards that the Fed built on a sandy patch (in the rising tide) slowly folds in on itself, Bitcoin can be expected to become the receptacle of much of the money fleeing equities and mutual funds and seeking out high-yielding risky investment vehicles. The regulation sought by so many institutional players has prepared the ground for what could be the greatest Bitcoin rally to date. However, the caveat is that the cryptocurrency risks becoming a prostitute to Wall Street, like so many derivatives (including paper Gold) before it. Bitcoin the commodity and Bitcoin the Blockchain have very different functions and let’s hope that the drive toward pervasive adoption and regulation does not weaken Bitcoin’s far greater political utility.

Also read: Bitcoin Price and QE Closure
Also read: IMF Urges Banks to Manage “Perception”

What do readers think? Please comment below.

Global Economy

S&P500 vs Gold vs Bitcoin

S&P500 (black), Gold (purple) and Bitcoin (Yellow).

S&P500 vs Gold vs Bitcoin 30 oct 2014

US Dollar

The US Dollar is rallying across the board. Here is a chart showing the market’s reaction to the Fed Statement as expressed in the Dollar/Yen (USDJPY) forex pair.

USDJPY 15-minute Chart

USDJPY 15m chart 30Oct2014

Selected Economic Data

  • US Unemployment Claims
    • expected: 283K (previous: 284K)
    • actual: 287K
  • US Advance GDP Price Index q/q
    • expected: 2.0% (previous: 2.1%)
    • actual: 1.3%

Bitcoin Price Correlation With Gold

Time of analysis: 06h00 UTC

Asian Session

The Bitcoin price is skirting just above $330.

The following Bitstamp chart has additional overlays of BTC-China (yellow) and Gold (purple). Note the positive correlation between the Gold and Bitcoin price charts.

Bitstamp Hourly Chart

Bitstamp vs BTC-China vs Gold 30oct2014



Targets for reversal remain $330 and $290.

Dropping below the 5 Oct low of $275 opens up $259 and $205.

See yesterday’s analysis summary for trading strategies pertaining to the reversal targets mentioned above.


The Bitcoin price chart and trade metrics are available.

Readers can follow Bitcoin price analysis updates each weekday on CCN. In-depth analysis articles are published every Sunday.


The writer is fully invested in Bitcoin via BTC-e and Bitfinex. Trade and Investment is risky but not as risky as some other things out there. Take care only to take action in the market when you are 100% sure of the outcome. CCN accepts no liability whatsoever for losses incurred as a result of anything written in this Bitcoin price analysis report.

Bitcoin price charts from TradingView.
Income Distribution chart from 
Images from Shutterstock.



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A Big Bitcoin Economy

Launceston Tasmania

A plan to build the “world’s largest” local bitcoin-based economy is underway in the city of Launceston, Australia, with support from local businesses and even government.

Project organizers say the compact Tasmanian city with a population of 106,000 will make a good high-density testing ground for bitcoin. The plan is aimed to cover various levels of the business supply chain, allowing users to both receive and spend their bitcoins, rather than simply converting them to Australian dollars.

A notable part of the ‘Launceston Launch’ plan would be to have the local government, the Launceston City Council, accept bitcoin for taxes and rates. At least two members of the 12-member council have shown support for the idea.

Plan director Adam Poulton has talked of bitcoin’s potential to put the spotlight on a city not often seen in international headlines, saying:

“Bitcoin is a currency in use in all developed countries in the world and has turned over $20bn in the last 12 months. It’s time Launceston got its share.”

This, along with several tourism and real-estate projects, plus a social media campaign, would hopefully attract more affluent tourists to the area, who would in turn be encouraged to spend bitcoin there.

Launceston Launch is designed to be a mainly closed-loop system, beginning with traders accepting digital currency and then targeting other merchants up the supply chain, keeping most of it within the city as its cost-saving benefits are realized.

Receipt of bitcoin payments and conversion to dollars, if requested, will be handled by Sydney-based payment processor BitPOS.

Gold sponsors signed

At least two supporting businesses have signed up for the project’s Gold Sponsorship, including Dr Roger Bernard, a medical clinic operator who has studied bitcoin since early 2013.

Bernard said:

“I am an eager participant in the Launceston Launch project, and this is why I immediately joined as a Gold Sponsor.”

Bitcoin could also open his practice to international clients and help sell his skincare products overseas, he added.

Raising awareness

A public education campaign is also underway to raise awareness of the project, coordinated by Melbourne-based bitcoin activist and documentary maker Dale Dickins. There are also plans to install four bitcoin ATMs around the city centre, with more to follow if the project proves a success.

Marketing efforts would initially target female consumers aged 25–45, as the demographic with the highest percentage of smartphone usage and who visit the widest variety of shops.

Initial responses from local businesses had been positive, Poulton said. Despite overall awareness being low, most begin to see bitcoin’s potential for savings and convenience after an informative 15-minute chat, he added.

Issues discussed include that fact that bitcoin is not too complex technologically, the Australian Tax Office has confirmed legality with a ruling, it integrates well into an e-commerce site and merchants would have the ability to cap the number of bitcoins they receive if needed.

Some concerns have stemmed from businesses not knowing what to do with a sudden influx of bitcoin-using customers. The ‘Bartercard‘ local currency initiative of previous years caused headaches for some small businesses who collected the system’s trade points, but complained they were unable to spend them on practical expenses like taxes and supplies.

This is not an issue with bitcoin, Poulton said, since payment processors like BitPOS are ready to exchange bitcoins for dollars if needed and a sudden jump in bitcoin trade is unlikely.

Other small but relatively high-density locations around the world have similar plans to promote bitcoin acceptance and businesses in their area, including islands the HagueBaliJersey, and theIsle of Man.


a Big Bitcoin Economy


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Tesla closes on free Nevada land

Tesla closes on free Nevada land for gigafactory

Construction on Tesla’s lithium-ion battery

factory has already started east of Reno.

Tesla Motors today closed its deal to acquire the 980-acre site in an industrial park outside Reno where it has already begun pouring concrete for a giant lithium-ion battery factory.

Lance Gilman, a principal and partner with the Tahoe-Reno Industrial Center, told Fortune today that papers have been filed in the Storey County courthouse transferring the “gigafactory” site to the automaker. Tesla  TSLA -1.55%  is getting the land for free, along with a $1.3-billion package of economic-development incentives it negotiated with Nevada.

Scheduled for completion in 2020, the gigafactory is intended to produce 500,000 battery packs a year, mostly to be shipped to the company’s auto-assembly plant in Fremont, California, for use its promised mass-market electric car.

Tesla CEO Elon Musk has said his company will start producing the car, priced at about $35,000, in 2017. He says the gigafactory—intended to double worldwide lithium-cell production—will cut battery costs by more than 30%, helping make the new car affordable. Tesla’s current Model S starts at about $70,000.

Battery production at the gigafactory is supposed to begin in 2017 and peak battery production should be reached when the gigafactory is fully complete in 2020. When finished, he says, the building will likely total between five and six million square feet—nearly as big as the Pentagon. The gigafactory is expected to cost $5 billion and employ about 6,500 workers.

Legally, the giant industrial park, which Gilman manages, is giving the 980-acre gigafactory parcel to Tesla. But as part of the deal, the state of Nevada is paying the park’s owners $43 million for right-of-way to extend a four-lane road through the complex to US Highway 50, a major interstate. Gilman has sought the extension, which will cut travel times to and from the industrial park and open up thousands of acres for development, for more than 15 years. “That’s our reward,” Gilman told Fortune. “It’s going to happen. It’s because of Tesla that we’re willing to work this particular transaction.”

The state will also pay for construction of the road, called USA Parkway, at an estimated cost of $70 million. The extension is scheduled for completion by December 2017.

In addition, Tesla  TSLA -1.55%  has options to purchase another 9,000 adjacent acres, including 7,000 acres for a wind-farm with the potential to produce about 140 megawatts of electricity, according to Gilman.

Musk has said Tesla plans to generate all the power for the project from renewable sources, including geothermal energy, and he hopes to make the battery plant a “net zero-energy factory.” A company rendering of the project show the wind-farm operational and the concrete roof of the giant building—more than a mile long and a quarter-mile wide—covered with solar panels. Conveniently for Musk, his cousin Lyndon Rive is the CEO and co-founder of solar energy pioneer SolarCity, and Musk himself serves as the company’s chairman.


Tesla closes on free Nevada land 

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